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If you are a Study Participant, contact your Administrator directly as information in the Support Center is intended for qualified researchers and healthcare professionals. Misapplying the information below may affect your data collection.

Have you done comparative studies or validation of the heart rate obtained from the E3/E4?

On E3 continuous heart rate data:
The E3 performs admirably when compared to consumer health and fitness devices. It has the advantage of providing continuous heart rate with precise inter beat interval (IBI) information that is not interpolated. IBI is critical for accurately evaluating heart rate variability. The E3 system provides continuous data that is suited for every-day classroom or work environments.
Study 1- Sept 2013
We have written up a document comparing the heart rate data generated by the E3 with respect to the data produced by two other consumer oriented devices: Mio Alpha and Polar H7.

Here is a link to the paper in PDF format


Study 2- Oct 2014

A study on 15 subjects has been conducted to compare the heart rate and the heart rate variability obtained from the E3 with the one obtained from a gold standard, the Biopac MP150 equipped with and ECG100C transducer. 

The experiment has been performed under low movement conditions.

The comparison is documented in the following presentation: ECGvsE3-BVP_20141029.pdf

Over 9287 peaks were detected from 15 participants’ ground truth ECG. In our analysis data was analyzed from 9 subjects with clean ground-truth ECG:

For heart rate variability computation and vagal tone estimation, it is important to compute the high frequency (HF) component. Sometimes people are also interested in the ratio of the Low Frequency (LF) to HF, as an estimate of sympathovagal balance.

Mean PP intervals r=1 p< 0.0001
SD PP intervals r=0.997 p< 0.0001
LF r=0.991 p< 0.0001
HF r=0.981 p< 0.0001
LF/HF r=0.965 p< 0.0001

error = 2.1% = (FP+FN+MD)/ECG peaks

Formal evaluations of the continuous heart-rate are in progress in order to evaluate the signal quality under strong movement conditions 


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